Digital Media & Surveillance

RRIB Media: ‘Biting off more than we can chew’

RRIB Media incorporates the creative ideas of Ben Briant, Isabel Taylor, Riam Hussain and Reid Morris.

RRIB Media Logo – Created by Isabel Taylor

As RRIB Media we have created a video incorporating online surveillance into today’s society. The video explores concepts about the impact of online surveillance in  everyday life. The video portrays a sixty-minute style show, called ‘Six and a Bit Minutes’, which saw senior reporter Cubert McCuboid interviewing university students who had differing viewpoints on surveillance. The views ranged from utopian and idealistic about surveillance to dystopian and afraid of how surveillance will affect their future.

We had an array of different ideas for our film ranging from a mockumentary to a blockbuster film. We used Trello to brainstorm our ideas (as shown in screen capture).

Screenshot from Trello

Trello was accessible by each member and began the production process of Six and a Bit Minutes. The original ideas consisted of a documentary, multiple short films, a meta-mockumentary about spying on and stalking our group members and finally deciding on an interview exploring different viewpoints. We discussed having a film entirely about a dystopian or utopian perspective rather than showcasing the three different viewpoints in one video. Another possible idea that we had for the project was having the film as a serious news segment. Once the ‘ice was broken’ with our first Google Hangout session, the ideas all flowed through and changed each minute thereafter. Our catchphrase ‘biting off more than we can chew’ came about from each group member adding ideas to improve our project, but in most cases, we were just over complicating the video. Many of the over complicating aspects were due to paying attention to specific, but ultimately insignificant, details in the video. Or the details proposed were too difficult to organise and implement overall four videos.

As a group, we were all fairly inexperienced in online collaboration, so through this assessment, we wanted to use and gain experience in as many online collaborative platforms as possible. We started on the website Trello, where we were able to brainstorm our ideas, vote on these ideas and set reminders such as due dates and “to do” lists. Once everyone in the group were all happy with one of the video ideas, we then moved onto using video conferencing. Our main platform used was “Google Hangouts”, where at least once a week, we met to discuss ideas and just to catch up to ensure everyone was up to date and comfortable with what their role was. If a group member was unable to make a “Hangout”, the video conference was recorded and uploaded to YouTube so that any absent group members could catch up on any missed information at a later date. Here is an example of one of our Google Hangouts.

Each member of the group was given one character for the video and then each went away to film our individual parts. This, however, did make for a challenge as we needed to ensure each member’s video clips were coherent in terms of framing, sound etc. The onscreen members also had to leave space in their videos for voiceover of the interviewer. Once each member had completed filming, we each uploaded our clips to a shared Dropbox to allow for ease of access to the video by each member. Once all the clips were in the Dropbox,

Screenshot taken from Dropbox

Reid collated them all to begin the editing process. During this process, Reid edited and ordered the video clips as well as added my voiceovers as the interviewer to each Isabel’s, Riam’s and Ben’s videos. Once the editing process was completed, Reid shared the video with the rest of the group where we could each make suggestions for changes, until we were all happy with the final outcome.

Throughout the brainstorming and subsequent filming, there has been one overall core meaning of the video. The message of the video is to simply highlight how hotly debated and complex the opinions can be about online surveillance. The video intended to showcase how significant online surveillance can be outside the internet. This was portrayed through the almost manic nature of the utopian and dystopian student interviewees, as well as the disappearance of students at the end of the film. Although there was an overall core message of the

illuminati ( by Eli Rook (CC-BY-SA 2.0)

film, there were multiple messages weaved through. This was that all digital media is used as a form of surveillance. This was represented in the interview filming style, as well as having the cube as the interviewer. The cube symbolises both the Illuminati and an inside joke related to Deakin, that the ‘cube is watching is all’. With having the cube as a symbol of surveillance, as its role as interviewer gives it a sense of power over the students. Another subsequent message of the film was the online surveillance is intrinsically linked with offline surveillance. To specify, whatever you do online has an impact offline.

Overall the collaborative video was an eye-opening and educational experience. This is not limited to learning about digital surveillance but applies to learning how to conduct an entirely online collaborative project. As an inexperienced group, we dealt with many new challenges and hurdles from the brainstorming stage to writing up this very report. We dealt with them accordingly, learning and experimenting with online programs such as Trello and Google Hangouts. This project was as much as learning about the online programs as it was how to organise such a complicated project online. As RRIB Media, we are proud of the surveillance film we produced, and the skills and experiences we took from the project can, and will, be applied further to our learning and future careers.

We hope you enjoy our film, as embedded below.

Digital Media & Surveillance

“Do you agree to the terms and conditions?”- Why your data is being sold to businesses…

Thinking back to the time when I started my social media accounts, I was probably around the age of 12 or 13 for Facebook and a bit older for some of the other social networks I use. When I signed up for Facebook, I entered my email address, name and password, created the account and started adding more and more to enhance my profile, but thinking back on it now, I probably should have monitored what data I entered, because the data exists somewhere in a data bank, even if I think I have deleted it.

Logging into a new social network or website that requires a user account, what do you see? In most cases, a little check box with the phrase “I have read and agree to the terms of conditions”. Many just click the box and continue on. Why is this? Is it because humans are lazy? Is there too much legal jargon included? Well, users of these sites should read through the terms and conditions because the websites are selling your data to third parties. Third parties then use a user’s data to ‘compromise [our] digital traces’…to create marketing material based on our ‘purchases and searches’ (Till 2013, p.36)


Checklist ( by Animated Heaven (Public Domain)


I recently ran a poll on Twitter to determine #ALC205‘s commitment to reading the terms and conditions. The results are in and (drum roll please)(credit to: Jojikiba):

70% of voters surveyed, just don’t read the terms and conditions and just click ‘Agree’. I would also be in either the category of skim or skip and agree, as ‘ain’t nobody got time for that‘ (Credit: The Parady Factory). Till (2013, p.42) worries that users are ‘lack[ing] in trust’ and are ‘surrender[ing] their personal details to companies’, in which they use the data to create ‘more data’. (Till 2013 p.42).

Many social networking sites (SNS) define in their terms and conditions that they can share user’s data with third parties associated with the site. But, let’s think where does the data go from there? The data is generally stored in ‘data mines’ (Fertik & Thompson 2015, p.2). According to Fertik & Thompson (2015, p.2) data mining is ‘the 2010s buzzword for the trend toward collecting huge amounts of data about nearly every subject imaginable’.

Once the data is stored, companies are able to then ‘supply the data to anyone willing to pay cash for it’ (Fertik & Thompson 2015, p.5). One’s online presence and identity creates a reputation, based on the data you provide. Fertik & Thompson (2015, p.6) compare one’s ‘digital reputation’ or digital thumbprint as being ‘more valuable than cash currency’.


thumbprint ( by Craig Pennington (CC-BY 2.0)


It is actually a bit worrying about how much data is stored on an individual but even more worrying to think who has access to my data and what is my online reputation like?

I think any future SNS that I sign up for, I will read the fine print about where my data is going or will I just ‘skip’ over the terms and conditions without reading them?


Read the Fine Print ( by Phil Roeder (CC-BY 2.0)


For anyone that is interested in some of the terms and conditions of popular websites like Facebook, Twitter, Google and YouTube, I have created a jeopardy style game with some questions outlining some terms and conditions. The link is in the below tweet.

Keep safe online!

Reid 🙂

Fertik, M & Thompson, D.C, 2015, ‘Welcome to the Reputation Economy’, The Reputation Economy, Tall Tree Enterprises, New York, pp. 1-16

Till, C, 2013, ‘Architects of time: Labouring on digital futures’, Thesis Eleven, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 33 – 47

App Surveillance, Digital Media & Surveillance

Gamification of Everyday Life – Is it safe?

The 1990’s was a decade in which Tamagotchis’, Furbies’ and Beanie Babies were the toys that every child had to have. The Macarena dance and Aqua’s Barbie Girl were the rave at the clubs. But, as the nineties progressed many fads came and went but one that stayed popular, even to this day, is Pokémon. Children everywhere aspired to be ‘the very best like no one ever was’ (Loeffler & Siegler 1999). But Pokémon didn’t feel real, until Pokémon Go was released.

Pokémon Go was released by augmented reality company Niantic, in July of 2016. Pokémon Go is a mobile application that allows users to engage with the popular series Pokémon, whilst completing their daily exercise. Researchers from Deakin University state that Pokémon Go ‘is taking us out of our living rooms and into real-life streets to roam as we play’ (How Pokemon Go is transforming gaming  2016). This type of application comes under the theory of ‘gamification‘.

(I have provided a link to a blog post by Dr. Adam Brown, from Deakin University, where he provides insight into ‘Motivation and the Rewards’ associated with gamification).

According to Kim (2015, p. 5), ‘Gamification is not quite creating a game but [it] transfers some of the positive [and motivating] characteristics of a game to something that is not a game’. The game like characteristics that are elements of Pokémon Go are great to motivate us to exercise but what about being tracked whilst playing the game. The first time I played the game, I questioned the use of tracking and checking in, and where is this geo-location data going and what is it being used for.

The game uses real locations and appeals to youngsters and kidults (McCartney 2016). McCartney (2016) asserts that ‘the game draws people to real places [and is] making it easy for criminals to spot [points of interest]’. The games use of point of interest technology allows for users to be victimised.

Recently, three teenagers were robbed at gunpoint in London because they were playing Pokémon Go. The Guardian reports that because of ‘its popularity, safety fears have been sparked’ (Khomami 2016). There is also fears of terrorism being an issue associated with the app, as terrorists aim for big groups of people. Also, conspiracy theories are arising that associates links to the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) and to Pokémon Go’s app surveillance.


Referring back to my earlier point of me questioning where the location data is going. According to Pokémon Go’s Privacy Policy, they collect and store our information about our location when we use the location services in the app. A big part of the policy states that you understand and agree to the app collecting data of your location.

This data will then be shared with third parties associated with the app, like the Pokémon Company and other providers that provide services to Pokémon Go. This is why it is vital to making sure you read the terms and conditions of every account you create. I will go on and speak about this in my next blog post on terms of use [link to follow].

I enjoy using Pokémon Go and engaging with the Pokémon world, but I am always sceptical about the other ramifications that are associated with it.


Bulbasaur in Tottori 1 (Tottori Sand Dune) by Kasadera (CC-BY 2.0)



, How Pokemon Go is transforming gaming 2016, Deakin University, retrieved 16 Jul 2016, <>.

Khomami, N 2016, ‘Pokémon Go: London players robbed of phones at gunpoint’, The Guardian [Online Content], <>.

Kim, B 2015, ‘The popularity of gamification in the mobile and social era’, Library Technology Reports, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 5-9.

Loeffler, J & Siegler, J 1999, Pokémon Theme.

McCartney, M 2016, ‘Margaret McCartney: Game on for Pokémon Go’, BMJ: British Medical Journal (Online content), p. 1.


Digital Media & Surveillance, Eduveillance

“From Panopticon to the Playground”: An analysis of today’s schools

Walking into my first day of placement. I looked around the school* and was amazed by the architecture that the school had. The school has been designed in a way that the buildings of the school form a circular shape around the centre of the school. The architecture has been designed to resemble a community with many students spending the majority of their classes in one particular building.

The spaces are designed to accommodate around 150 students per area. The spaces allow for interaction and collaboration with the traditional classroom (the teacher standing at the front of the room) space being changed to accommodate twenty-first century needs. Now, I know it sounds like I am taking a completely utopian view about how great the spaces are. But, the first time I saw the buildings I instantly thought, the style of them is very panopticon-esque.


Students in the classroom ( by Alvin Trusty (CC-BY-NC 2.0)


The panopticon is a building design, designed by Jeremy Bentham, it was originally used in a prison, to enable one-way viewing of prisoners at all times. The notion of the panopticon was to allow for prisoners to be ‘watched’ and controlled. (Chalkley 2015, p. 262)


panopticon by jiattison (CC-BY 2.0)

“Schools have adopted this [panoptic] system of organisation, and it quickly became the norm for all classroom… [it allows] for all students to be visible at all times.” (Tait 2000, p. 10).  With these ideas in mind, the panopticon is still very present in today’s classrooms as teachers generally stand in a position where they can see every student at one time and also watch what they are doing.

It isn’t just happening in schools; tertiary education institutions also resemble the panopticon. Take this panorama of Deakin University’s Burwood Campus, many of the buildings are quite high and one would assume that if you stand at the top of the building, you’d be able to see across campus, thus reiterating the big brother idea of ‘always watching’.


Image taken by Reid Morris, July 2016.


Panopticon style classrooms are not the only forms of surveillance in schools. Security cameras, Learning Management Systems, mobile phone tracking and blocking and network monitoring are also present. Surveillance is everywhere in schools and with the digital age growing it is only going to increase.

Schools are even now going to the extreme of implementing policies that provides the principal the ability to peruse and copy contents of a mobile phone brought to school (as shown in the below article). This form of edu-veillance is very extreme and is not being used correctly to protect students. This is a form of exploiting one’s power and should not be lawful.

{This blog post was inspired by staring out of a window at university and seeing someone taking a picture out of a high building window}

That’s all for now!

Reid 🙂


Chalkley, T 2015, ‘Surveillance’. In Chalkley, T, Hobbs, M, Brown, A, Cinque, T, Warren, B & Finn, M (Eds.) Communication, digital media + everyday life, South Melbourne, Victoria, Australia : Oxford University Press, 2015. Second edition. pp. 259-72

Tait, G 2000, ‘From the panopticon to the playground: disciplinary practices’. In Meadmore, D, Burnett, B & Tait, G (Eds.) Practising Education: Social and Cultural Perspectives, Prentice Hall-Sprint Print, New South Wales., Australia pp. 7- 18


*I have decided not to name the school in which I attended placement, for privacy reasons and as much of this blog post is a critique of the architecture.


ALC203, ALC203 Portfolio Part 2

Digital Media & Education

‘Digital, Screen and Communication Technologies’ (Cinque, 2015, p.5) are exponentially shaping and defining the future of education. The video below explores mainly the views of Pavlik (2015) and his ideals regarding the four influences of education from technology (p.114).

The setup and layout of the video was quite difficult. I was deciding whether to video myself then overlap different slides or do a slideshow with a voiceover. I decided on the slideshow and voiceover. Talking to a camera and computer is often daunting, but once you get started on it, you get used to it. Most of my friends know that I absolutely hate being in front of a camera for images, let alone video. So this task, pushed me well out of my comfort zone.

In the Prezi presentation, I used Creative Commons images from Flickr. The images I used were (in order of appearance):

The image titled 2012-240 is an image that represents life long learning, because it says that “All are Teachers” and  “All are Learners”. Life long learning is a skill that everyone has but it is the way a particular person accepts this challenge or denies the challenge is how their personal learning will be shaped. The image “Transforming” was used to elaborate the transformation of educational institutions, which was the topic I was talking about on that particular slide. The young digital native image is a visual representation of a digital native (a very young digital native). It also creates a sense of guilt and fear for teachers who do not know how to use a particular medium or program, because the students that they are teaching are often better at using technology than they are.

I only really used one strategy in using scholarly sources in my video, this was using the slideshow technique that I used for majority of the video. The Prezi I created allowed for me to display quotes on the screen and respond to them whilst they were on the screen.

There were many a challenge that came about from this video. I nearly even ended up like this at one stage.

Frustration ( by amenclinicsphotos ac (CC-BY-SA 2.0)

The main challenges I faced was Time, sticking to a 7 minute time limit is impossible when you are discussing something you are passionate about. So, how did I go about the time limit issue, well I split the video and did a second 3 minute video, which is embedded below (The assessment task didn’t say we couldn’t do this).

Another issue was video export settings, YouTube told me that a video using certain codecs (YouTube recommended) would upload quicker when in reality the codec I was already using, worked much faster.

One thing that I learnt the most from this experience, is a few of the settings of YouTube, like annotations and the upload process. I now can relate to how the YouTubers I watch on a daily basis, the amount of work that goes into their videos and the time it takes to upload them.

I enjoyed creating the video and using Adobe Premiere to edit it together, but I think I’ll stick to being behind the camera not in front of the camera. Being in front of the camera is something that I will always hate whether it’s for image or moving image. The only reason I want to be in front of the camera in future is for my staff identification as a teacher, when I need to pose like this.

taro the shiba, image for the therapy dog ID ( by Taro the Shiba Inu (CC-BY 2.0)


Word Count: 622

My Broader Online Activity and Engagement.

So since Assessment Task 1 for ALC203, my blog engagement has somewhat slipped due to the amount of assessment tasks that are thrown at students towards the end of trimester. During this time though,  I have still remained active on Twitter and participated in two of the Tiffit challenges as shown below. My Tiffit Tally Score also reflects an active engagement during the unit. This unit has been an amazing experience and will probably remain one of my favourite classes throughout my degree. It has been great to be able to network with other students who share a common interest.

Word Count: 107 (because of my last sentence).

Reid 🙂 – Don’t forget to check out my Twitter and YouTube Channel


DoctorVox – Frontier ( by Argofox (CC-BY 3.0)
DOCTOR VOX – Frontier:

Scholarly Sources:
Bergmann, J. & Sams A., 2012, Flip your Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day. 1st ed. United States of America: International Society for Technology in Education.

Brabazon, T., 2014, Learning to leisure? When social media becomes educational media, Digital Culture & Education, vol. 6, no. 2, pp.82-97

Cinque, T 2015 Changing Media Landscapes: Visual Networking. South Melbourne; Oxford University Press.

Chatfield, T, 2016, The classroom of the Future, NewPhilosopher, no. 12, pp.35-36.

Pavlik, J.V, 2015, Fueling a Third Paradigm of Education: The Pedagogical Implications of Digital, Social and Mobile Media, Contemporary Educational Technology, vol.6, no. 2, pp.113 -125

ALC203, ALC203 Portfolio Part 1

An investigation into the identity of the one that many call ‘Reid’.

I was about six months off of being thirteen years of age when I first joined the website Facebook. I know what you’re thinking, ‘oh what a rebel, Facebook’s terms and conditions state users have to be thirteen years old to join Facebook’. This was in about 2009, I think, when Facebook was just growing and entering into the world-wide web. This became one of the starting points of the ‘Social Media Revolution’. I may be a rebel for joining at such a young age but really I wasn’t. My privacy settings were at the highest level on Facebook and I only added people who I had met in real life. This was the beginning of a scary but fun phenomenon that started my journey online and initiated my digital persona being put out into an unfamiliar territory.

I am known to society as a digital native because I was born into the realm of digital media. The video that is mentioned in the following tweet, puts into perspective what the nature of growing up in today’s society entails in comparison to what it was like growing up in previous times.

The term digital natives has become a generalised statement that is applied to anyone born in the previous three decades (including myself). According to Chalkley et al. (2015 p.291), digital natives are defined as people who are born in an era when ‘they have always had access to computers, digital files and online communities’. This term of digital natives was first introduced in Marc Prensky’s 2001 article Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. Prensky (2001) states that digital natives came to light as a notion of society for generations born after the 1980’s. They are “native speakers” of the digital language, where in comparison, those who were not born into the digital age are known as digital immigrants. The impression that is associated with the term digital natives often has confounding negative connotations associated with epidemics and issues associated with the use of digital technologies (i.e. childhood obesity and education scores being lowered). Due to the evolution of digital technologies, that is constantly changing, digital immigrants have to conform with the society of the digital natives. Prensky states that ‘no matter how much the Immigrants may wish it, it is highly unlikely [that] the Digital Natives will go backwards’.

digital natives ( Juan Cristóbal Cobo (CC-BY 2.0)

Being digital natives puts pressure on us, because we are constantly connected to these digital technologies, and we are constantly building on the “traditional” knowledge of the digital immigrants and are encouraging them to try these new technologies that are existent in today’s society. I get calls from my work all the time, and most of the time I feel like answering ‘Hello, tech support’. There has been a recent shift where younger generations are teaching the older generations to ‘produse‘ and ‘prosume‘ in the digital age.

The terms produse and prosume (and subsequently produser and prosumer) were first introduced by Bruns & Scmidt (2011). Bruns (2011) asserts that there is a hybrid connection that we can no longer just engage in either one of ‘usage or production’ and ‘consuming and producing’. But simply, they are intertwined in the digital age, thus forming the terms produser (derived from the words production and user, defined as a ‘collaborative and continuous building and extending of existing content in pursuit of further improvement’)(Bruns & Schmidt 2011) and prosumer (derived from the words producer and consumer, defined as a buyer and seller building upon and designing information that is vital to production and sales) (Toffler as cited in Bruns & Schmidt 2011, p.4).

One’s online identity is a representation of ‘self’ in a community of built-up networks. We are simply presenting a ‘character‘. I say character, because quite often many people are fearful to portray the ‘real me’ online and present an alias (The Oxford Dictionary defines alias as: ‘A false or assumed identity’). Brown (2015, p.221) refers to the idea of the post-structuralist conception, and acknowledges that we are to reject the notion of having a singular identity, but rather the ‘true self’ is constructed as ‘multiple selves’.

Final Twin.jpg
‘Twin’ Photo taken and edited by Reid Morris, October 2011

This ideal of multiple selves is consistent with Kim’s (2015) view that as our online usage and engagement increases, our lives online and in reality are becoming increasingly blurry to separate. My online identity is created with both realistic elements as well as some things having a sense of anonymity. Up until recent years, every profile I have created, has always gone under the alias of ‘rmsmartboy’ (don’t ask me about where this came from, it’s just another example of those embarrassing junior high school years). I still use this alias occasionally but very rarely. I really only use this alias for my online associations that I don’t want public, for instance, my personal Facebook. Most of the time I now go under either ‘ReidCMorris’ or ‘ReidMorris’, especially on my professional profiles, like Twitter, LinkedIn or

It is important for me to distinguish between what I want to make public and private, as my future employers will most likely be looking into the social media and the image that I have portrayed on social media.

Did you know!

Approximately 40% of employers check a candidate’s social media profile before employing them. Only 19% of hiring managers that view a candidate’s social media profile, actually employ that person based on their social media profiles whereas in comparison 43% of hiring managers, denied employment to those that didn’t have a professional standard to their social media profiles. (Anon 2014)

Entering into the teaching profession in the future, is very intimidating. Not only, will I have my employers looking at my social media profiles, I will also have the students I teach, searching for me. My knowledge and experience shows, that approximately 70%+ of all students will Google Search (or use another search engine) a teacher that they have, especially now that multi-modality and Information and Communication Technology (I.C.T) are incorporated into curriculum and in the classroom.

Students love metaphorically ‘digging up dirt’ on teachers, especially those embarrassing posts from the ‘old days’. A perfect example is shown here between the celebrity culture of my #ALC203 teachers:

If you have clicked the hyperlinks, and looked at my online profiles, you would notice that one image is symbolic across all of the profiles. This image:

Photo of Me on ANZAC Day 2015

was taken on ANZAC Day of 2015, at the ceremony that I hosted at my work. I use this image for my professional identity because I feel it expresses my professionalism as well as allowing me to reflect and show pride in my history and genetics, because I was wearing my grandfather’s medals (he fought in WWII). I absolutely hate having my photo taken, as many of my friends and family know, but this image is one that I actually really like and perhaps if this wasn’t my profile picture, my dog Ernie (now deceased) would probably still be my profile picture.

‘Ernie’, photo taken by Reid Morris, 2014






This is how I present myself online, and will continue to present myself online into the future. (The below infographic portrays my online journey.) My journey in ALC203, so far has led me to create this blog, in which you are reading right now, it has also allowed me to explore different elements of new websites, such as About.Me and WordPress.

Here are some links to previous blog posts that I have created in ALC203:

The intercommunicative selfHave you been breaking the law? (relating to Creative Commons and Copyright and VCE Media Studies: Teaching Media Studies 1.0 (my opinion on the VCE Media Studies current curriculum).

My Online Journey
My online journey, created using Canva

That’s all for now, don’t forget to check out my socials –> Links on my About Me page.


Anon 2014, “The Role Of Social Media In Pre-Employment Candidate Screening– Statistics And Trends”, Go-Gulf, viewed 22 April, 2016, <>.

Brown, A 2015, “Navigating Social Media”, in T Chalkley, M Hobbs, A Brown, T Cinque, B Warren & M Finn (ed.), Communication, Digital Media and Everyday Life, 2nd ed, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, pp. 217 – 229.

Bruns, A & Schmidt, J 2011, “Produsage: a closer look at continuing developments”, New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 3-7.

Chalkley, T, Hobbs, M, Brown, A, Cinque, T, Warren, B & Finn, M 2015, Communication, digital media and everyday life, 2nd ed, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne.

Kim, B 2015, “The popularity of gamification in the mobile and social era”, Library Technology Reports, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 5 – 9.

Prensky, M 2001, “Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants Part 1”, On the Horizon, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 1-6.





The intercommunicative self

‘The intercommunicative self also acknowledges the necessity of linking one’s identities into some sort of pattern, from Twitter to Facebook, from YouTube and Flickr to MySpace, from blogs to Digg‘ (Marshall, 2010, pp. 42 – 43)

We all have that habit of sharing an image to Instagram, then constantly posting to Facebook for the publicity. This is due to the fact that our social media sites are intertwined. They are all connected.

Connected ( by Omran Jamal (CC-BY 2.0)

Celebrities use the layering of a variety of mediums, to engage in a high level of self-promotion to reach a mass audience. By linking all our accounts, it is an easier way to share and keep your audience engaged in your content as they can see it flooding the internet. #BREAKTHEINTERNET

The inter-connectedness allows us to remain consistent across many media forms.



Marshall, PD 2010, The Promotion And Presentation Of The Self : Celebrity As Marker Of Presentational Media, n.p.: Routledge, Deakin Research Online, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 April 2016.